For quantification, the following MRM transitions were used in this study: 371 → 263 for eckol, 741 ? In our study, the components of the ovarian follicles were analyzed via potential markers, i.e., Kitl, Bmp, Cyp11a1, and Has2, and histological examination was performed. B-JP performed in vitro experiments and data analysis. doi: 10.1210/jc.2006-2641. These results suggest that the E. cava extract inhibits the symptoms of PCOS by restoring imbalanced hormonal levels and irregular ovarian cycles in letrozole-induced female rats. Res. The mammalian ovary from genesis to revelation. every day for 2 weeks. To investigate the effects of the E. cava extract, rats with letrozole-induced PCOS were treated with E. cava extract (EC500; 500 mg/kg/day) for the final 2 weeks; induction was performed by insertion of letrozole pellets for 4 weeks (Figure 2A). 9:1325. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01325. Each group performed 2 endurance-based exercises with a 1 week break in between with the participants required to drink the ECS or the placebo 30 minutes prior. Rev. Recently, E. cava received attention due to its biological activities: attenuation of inflammation, antiallergenic activity, antidiabetic activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (Venkatesan et al., 2016; Hwang et al., 2017; Kim and Nam, 2017). doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.12.023, Mosselman, S., Polman, J., and Dijkema, R. (1996). In addition, the mRNA levels of Ar and Esr2 were decreased; however, this downregulation was reversed by E. cava extract treatment in rats with PCOS in our study. Furthermore, the follicular cysts had a flattened epithelioid cell layers facing the antrum and thickened hyperplastic theca interna cells in the cyst walls. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Rev. Copyright © 2018 Yang, Lee, Lee, Pyun, Kim, Lee, Kwon, Suh, Lee, Hong and Lee. 29, 478–482. In one study, the compound Triphlorethol A found in Ecklonia Cava was found to reduce sleep latency and increase the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) without impacting rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). 579, 6295–6304. The Pathogenesis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): the hypothesis of PCOS as functional ovarian hyperandrogenism revisited. Obstet. (1999). 7, 264–270. As expected, the testosterone levels were significantly elevated in the rats with PCOS (Figure 3E). From reducing inflammation, diabetic symptoms and reversing hair loss as well as assisting athletic performance by boosting endurance and testosterone and promoting better sleep and reducing pain, Ecklonia Cava â¦ Increased plasma levels of androgen and LH were the most consistent hormonal feature of rats with PCOS (Abbott et al., 2002), and low levels of progesterone and estradiol were also observed in rats with PCOS (Abbott et al., 2002). Protective effects of dieckol isolated from Ecklonia cava against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Values represent the means ± SEM. Effect of Dieckol, a component of Ecklonia cava, on the promotion of hair growth. Metab. doi: 10.1080/13880209.2016.1258425, Rocha, L., Marston, A., Potterat, O., Kaplan, M. A., Stoeckli-Evans, H., and Hostettmann, K. (1995). Ecklonia cava, collected from Jeju island of South Korea, was purchased from a comprehensive herbal medicinal shopping mall at Jungwoo-Dang (South Korea). Among the numerous therapies available for management of PCOS and induction of ovulation, E. cava is a seaweed that is known to be one of the richest sources of phloroglucinols, which are potent and highly effective antioxidants, antibacterials and anti-inflammatory agents (Rocha et al., 1995; Weng et al., 2004; Goswami et al., 2016). Psychological side-effects of clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotrophin. The mRNA levels of Bmp, Cyp11a1, and Has2 were downregulated; however, this reduction was recovered by treatment with E. cava extract in the ovaries of PCOS rats. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. doi: 10.1677/joe.0.1740001, Baravalle, C., Salvetti, N. R., Mira, G. A., Pezzone, N., and Ortega, H. H. (2006). The results presented in our report suggest that the E. cava extract has numerous beneficial effects on hormonal changes in rats with PCOS, and these changes significantly aid the recovery of the estrus cycle, the number of developed follicles and ovarian morphology in rats with PCOS. Treatment with estrogen increased MCF-7 cell proliferation compared to the control, but E. cava treatment did not lead to increased cell proliferation (Figure 1C). The results were normalized to the controls. When rats with letrozole-induced PCOS were exposed to the E. cava â¦ Overview. (B) Cells were pretreated with E. cava extract (1, 50, and 100 μg/mL) for 30 min prior to exposure to 10 μM forskolin (Sigma-Aldrich) for 24 h. DHEA production was measured in cell culture medium by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay following the manufacturer’s recommendations. Biol. 5-alpha reductase is present in small amounts in human muscle and converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Treatment of rats in the PCOS+positive groups with pellets was removed 14 d after insertion. These results indicate that the expression of follicular markers, i.e., Bmp (Figure 4B), Cyp11a1 (Figure 4C), and Has2 (Figure 4D), was upregulated by EC500 treatment and may therefore be involved in improvement of follicular development in rats with letrozole-induced PCOS during the ovarian cycle (Epifano and Dean, 2002). By increasing the growth of cells of the hair, it results in a reduction of the 5a-reductase activity. However, recent studies have been conducted to mitigate the side effects of chemical drugs and hormone therapy via treatment with natural substances, and there has been an increase in the use of herbal formulas to treat symptoms in humans, including childbearing women (Cornish and Garbar, 2010; Hidaka et al., 2013; Lee et al., 2018). Objectives: to evaluate the effectiveness of a natural compound made of Ecklonia bicyclis Seaweed, Tribulus terrestris and water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharide, in the male sexual asthenia with mild or mild-moderate erectile dysfunction and serum testosterone levels between 280 and 350 ng/dl. Dieckol is one of the major polyphenolic compounds present in E. cava. Mol. Testosterone affects lean body tissue, muscle size, muscle strength, and sexual function in men. The stained slides were examined using a VM600 digital slide scanning system (Motic, CA, United States). After treatment, MTT solutions (0.5 mg/mL) were added to each well, and the plates were incubated for 4 h at 37°C. Effect of E. cava treatment on aromatase, androgen receptor, and estrogen receptor β localization. It can also cross the blood-brain barrier. , Additionally, in animal subjects, Triphlorethol A supplementation was also able to replicate the effects of traditional sleeping tablets (ambien), increasing the quantity of sleep without adversely effecting the quality of sleep.. Arthritis 2. These results suggest that the E. cava extract does not have an estrogenic effect, and this result may not be associated with the estrous cycle in PCOS and/or normal female rats. Studies show that Ecklonia cava contains a number of compounds with antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Dieckol is the most active component in Ecklonia cava for the reduction of 5Î±-reductase (Kang et al., 2012). Gapdh mRNA was used as an internal control. Med.  https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/04bc/6ae0d6af71a86e69c20da7e1c2cbb2be8de8.pdf,  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5983271/,  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5983271/, Your email address will not be published. Magnification, 100 ×; section of rat ovary. 13, 6407–6423. Hormone levels, including the levels of testosterone, estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), were restored to their normal states. Ecklonia Cava Extract is known as a Super Antioxidant with powerful free radical scavenging ability. K17292). Separately treated MCF-7 cells were used for RNA analysis. Med. Ellen Landauer is an expert with over 40 years in-depth study and experience of the safe and effective use of nutritional supplements, â¦ In addition to phlorotannins, fucothanxin, a type of carotenoid found in brown seaweed like Ecklonia Cava is also shown to have good antioxidant properties that can offer protection to cells and protect against oxidation-induced damage. EC, E. cava extract; PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome. Millions of dollars has been spent looking at this stuff for all kinds of purposes. Ecklonia cava, or brown algae, is a wonder food thatâs filled with antioxidants and other wellness-boosting compounds. Microscopic characterization of follicular structures in letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in the rat. In the present study, treatment with E. cava extract restored the components and morphologies of ovarian follicles to a normal range, suggesting that this extract is involved in the regulation of various factors associated with follicular development in the ovary. Moreover, the transcriptional levels of Fshr, Fshβ, and Lhr were altered in the ovaries of PCOS rats, and these levels were restored to the normal range by E. cava extract treatment. Diabetes 5. Welsh onion root (Allium fistulosum) restores ovarian functions from letrozole induced-polycystic ovary syndrome. Phlorotannins in Ecklonia cava extract inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity. HY, SYL, E-JH, and HL performed the research, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript. Sci. (C) Vaginal smears were conducted on the last day, and hematoxylin staining was performed. The phloroglucinols appear to be very potent anti-oxidants, and these benefits have been noted after oral ingestion as well. However, E. cava extract contains various compounds, and further studies on fractions form partial purification of the extract are required to identify the active pharmaceuticals among the phlorotannin components. Mol. Antibacterial phloroglucinols and flavonoids from Hypericum brasiliense. Dewailly, D., Robin, G., Peigne, M., Decanter, C., Pigny, P., and Catteau-Jonard, S. (2016). For PCOS experiments, 6-week-old female rats were administered letrozole pellets (0.1 mg/kg/day). Thatâs what millions of Japanese people are consuming on a regular basis who also happen to have the longest human life expectancy in the world. Prod. This disorder is characterized by irregular ovulation, abdominal obesity and hyperandrogenism (Kafali et al., 2004). Med. doi: 10.1021/np049811x, Yang, H., Kim, H. J., Pyun, B. J., and Lee, H. W. (2018). Next, we investigated the effects of EC500 on the mRNA expression of ovarian Kitl, Bmp, Cyp11a1, and Has2, which are associated with follicle development; these genes can serve as biomarkers to diagnose the follicular stage of the ovarian cycle, such as the primary (Kitl), preantral (Bmp), early antral (Cyp11a1), and late antral (Has2) stages of the ovary (Epifano and Dean, 2002). Its exceptional with regards to health benefits â¦ (2017). They then go on to compare how that value is double that of blueberries, etc. The NCI-H295R cells were plated into 96-well plates at 1 × 103 cells/well and incubated in serum-free conditions before exposure to forskolin (FOR) (10 μM) in the presence or absence of E. cava water extract, metformin, or pioglitazone for 24 h. The levels of DHEA released into the media were determined in triplicate against standards prepared in medium using the ELISA kit. The estrus cycle is related to alterations in the circulating sex hormone, which controls ovarian function, including follicular maturation and hormonal imbalance (Sun et al., 2013). (2002). Soy isoflavones exert beneficial effects on letrozole-induced rat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) model through anti-androgenic mechanism. Also known as brown algae or brown seaweed, ecklonia cava has been linked to some powerful â¦ doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2012.01936.x, Horie, K., Takakura, K., Fujiwara, H., Suginami, H., Liao, S., and Mori, T. (1992). (2016). FIGURE 5. FEBS Lett. J. Obstet. The other results are reported as the mean ± SEM. The primers used for RT-PCR are shown in Table 1. Reprod. Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were maintained in culture flasks in full medium, consisting of DMEM supplemented with 5% heat-inactive fetal bovine serum. Eckol isolated from Ecklonia cava attenuates oxidative stress induced cell damage in lung fibroblast cells. , When combined with Tribulus terrestris and water-soluble Chitosan, Ecklonia Cava can help improve erectile dysfunction and liido in men suffering from low testoserone,  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3382810/,  https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/ijsnem/20/1/article-p72.xml,  https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1c0d/58e585ecb12cef1fa7d09b8bc40504d365a9.pdf,  https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1c0d/58e585ecb12cef1fa7d09b8bc40504d365a9.pdf, For instance, a study which looked at three groups of men aged between 18 – 45 years old (group A), 45 – 59 years old (group B) and 60 years + (group C) were treated with a combination of Ecklonia. Although not described for PCOS therapy, natural substances are becoming increasingly common and are replacing known medications for treatment of PCOS symptoms. Pharmacol., 19 November 2018 Expression of estrogen receptor-beta protein in rodent ovary. (2014). J. Nat. (2006). All rat experiments were performed in accordance with the recommendations of the Chungnam University Facility Animal Care Committee (CNU-00606), following the guidelines of the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International. J. Endocrinol. Enzyme-treated Ecklonia cava extract inhibits adipogenesis through the downregulation of C/EBPalpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. EC, E. cava extract; PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome. In contrast, plasma LH responded robustly to letrozole treatment in PCOS rat models, irrespective of EC500 treatment (Figure 3B). Its scientific name is Morinda officinalis. Coincidence or not, the scientific research is just coming out and one form of edible brown seaweed is leading the charge – Ecklonia Cava. doi: 10.3390/ijms13056407, Kang, K. A., Lee, K. H., Chae, S., Zhang, R., Jung, M. S., Lee, Y., et al. (A) For PCOS experiments, 6-week-old female rats were administered letrozole pellets (0.1 mg/kg/day). Ecklonia Cava is often hailed as a natural remedy for the following health conditions: Ecklonia Cava can also help enhance your performance both inside and outside of the gym, helping you reach your goals. When rats with PCOS were first exposed to letrozole for 2 weeks (0.1 mg/kg/day), followed by 2 weeks of exposure to placebo pellets, the body weights of these PCOS + rats were not significantly different compared to those of the corresponding rats with PCOS exposed to letrozole for 4 weeks. After 2 weeks, the rats were administered E. cava extract per os (P.O.) High levels of LH and increased LH:FSH ratios can serve as biomarkers to diagnose PCOS in women (Bednarska and Siejka, 2017). Additionally, the rats with PCOS did not exhibit a regular estrus cycle and had a prolonged diestrus phase (Rajan et al., 2017). The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. The secondary antibody was donkey and rabbit (scale bar = 200 μm). The 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were measured using an Estradiol (Rat) ELISA Kit (BioVision, United States). Ecklonia Cava can promote hair growth and may tackle hair loss. Ecklonia cava â¦ J. Mol. In males, low testosterone has been associated with low libido and poor health outcomes, such as the development of metabolic syndrome. Hereâs our Seanol review. Recently, natural substances have been used for PCOS therapy. At the transcriptional and translational levels, Ar, and Esr2 levels were markedly increased in the E. cava-treated rats with PCOS compared with the rats with letrozole-induced PCOS. The results obtained for the NCI-H295R cell proliferation, DHEA production and follicular genetic marker assays are presented (± SD). After 15 days of continual treatment of 300mg/kg of Ecklonina Cava extracts, the treated group displayed a significant response to the treatment through alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity compared to the control group. Actin expression was used as a control. (2005). Fshr, synergistically with other stimulating factors such as androgens, regulates follicle growth moderately during the basal follicle growth phase (Dewailly et al., 2016). Topical application of E. cava is known to enhance hair growth; this is a novel application that also leads to inhibition of androgen-induced hair loss (Kang et al., 2012). bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris and water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharide who each displayed mild to low serum testosterone levels. The MRM mode of triple-quadrupole MS was used to achieve high-sensitivity quantification of the specific molecules. treatment every day for 2 weeks. FIGURE 4. (A) NCI-H295R cells were incubated in the presence of the indicated concentrations of E. cava extract for 24 h. Cell viability was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and measurement of absorbance at 540 nm. Additionally, the plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased by E. cava extract treatment in rats with PCOS. Modulation of aromatase activity as a mode of action for endocrine disrupting chemicals in a marine fish. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2006.04.006, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Bednarska, S., and Siejka, A. Reprod. Adv. Seanol is a trademarked nutritional formula typically found within a popular supplement called Marine D3 or Dr. Sinatraâs Seanol. Hum. E. cava is widely used as a functional food, supplement and ingredient for animal feed (Lee et al., 2010). Serum was obtained by centrifugation at 2,000 × g for 10 min and stored at -70°C until use. (A) Cyp19a1, (B) Ar, and (C) Esr2 mRNA levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. How does the Cava Forte work? It has recently been promoted heavily in hair loss circles thanks to 2 very promising studies performed in 2012 and 2013. Ecklonia cava (E. cava) is a well-known natural substance that attenuates the effects of inflammation, allergies and cancer. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2003.10.005, Kang, J. I., Kim, S. C., Kim, M. K., Boo, H. J., Jeon, Y. J., Koh, Y. S., et al. treatment every day for 2 weeks. Rats were acclimated to laboratory conditions for 1 week. Nanomaterials 6:235. doi: 10.3390/nano6120235, Weng, J. R., Tsao, L. T., Wang, J. P., Wu, R. R., and Lin, C. N. (2004). ap < 0.05 vs. placebo group, bp < 0.05 vs. PCOS group. Molecules 22:E777. The percentage of viable cells in each treatment group was determined by the experimental optical density (OD) value of the control. 147, 140–150. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. For PCOS experiments, letrozole pellets (IRA; Innovative Research of America, OH, United States; 0.1 mg/kg/day) were administered to 6-week-old female rats in an animal anesthesia system (Vetequip®, Abesko, Gyeonggi, Korea) using 2% isoflurane. Histological analysis showed that the rats with PCOS also exhibited thin granulosa cell layers, decreased follicular development and numerous subcapsular cysts. ER beta: identification and characterization of a novel human estrogen receptor. group of rats with letrozole-induced PCOS (PCOS + EC500) showed obvious changes in the developed follicles, and there was some indication of ovarian aromatase, Ar and Erβ expression in the granulosa cells of the follicle antrum; this effect was most notable in the PCOS + EC500 group. FIGURE 2. Algae 25, 155–171. To validate the effect of the E. cava extract on hormonal changes, we examined the plasma hormone levels. DHEA levels were analyzed in the conditioned culture medium. Materials and Methods: 84 male patients affected by reduced libido and serum testosterone â¦ Effects of E. cava extract on gonadotropin-related genes. As expected, rats with PCOS exhibited a prolonged diestrus phase (Figure 2C). Res. FIGURE 6. The quantification data for the 5 metabolites are as follows: dieckol (4.6478 μg/mg of sample) ≥ 6,6′-bieckol (4.6444 μg/mg of sample) > 8,8′-bieckol (1.1841 μg/mg of sample) ≥ eckol (1.01246 μg/mg of sample) > phloroglucinol (0.185 μg/mg of sample). Arguments have been made claiming that the nutrients like Ecklonia Cava live in the body for a long time. 172, 160–165. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2005.10.008, Kim, I. H., and Nam, T. J. However, because the etiology is unclear, management and treatment methods for PCOS are not well established. Briefly, dried E. cava (5 kg) was extracted with 75 L of water for 3 h with refluxing at 101 ± 1°C and then filtered. It can also be consumed as a dietary supplement and is said to treat a variety of health problems. In alternative medicine, Ecklonia Cava is touted as a natural remedy for the following health conditions: 1. This 5a-reductase is the enzyme that is â¦ Based on these results, we found that follicles in rats with PCOS were present in the primary or preantral stage. ap < 0.05 vs. placebo group, bp < 0.05 vs. PCOS group. Levels of plasma steroid hormones, such as (A) FSH, (B) LH, (C) LH/FSH ratio, (D) AMH, (E) testosterone, and (F) estrogen, were measured using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit.
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