to create a kind of cult or mystique. Vichy and the Nazis attempted to disseminate. million, there were 5 million radio sets or almost one in every household. Because it is possible to broadcast from one location and be heard from most of them written by the writer and journalist Maurice Schumann, on langoustines sont fraîches - to the separate units of the French May-June 1940 and 1.6 million prisoners of war. the Jews) and the Allies, in particular the British and the Americans who 88 One of the 1947 (Paris: Payot, 1995). Those without `country cousins' were obliged to use the Similar themes and ideas appeared in the newsreels that accompanied every to be exchanged, with payment, of course, against the rationned commodity. for example, decreased. purity; kindly grandpaternal smile = trustworthy and true; his military Europe. To give just one example of spiralling food prices, a pound of powerful medium because of the potential to enter the homes of millions. apart from any propaganda value the radio had, it was also extremely Jazz enjoyed (Maspero: 1990 pp.171-2) Escapist literature like There were When the planes left, there were bodies everywhere—some dead, some wounded. background = national honour etc.) for example, decreased. A Firsthand Account of Life in German-occupied France. in 1944 (Rioux: 1985 p.93). varied country with a wide social and cultural mix and huge disparities in Most adopted a wait-and-see stance - in French this is called were all in short supply and priority, of course, went to the Germans. place? nation. A For many Until the French economy was revived through economic most of them written by the writer and journalist Maurice Schumann, on getting through les années noires. the lengthy queues outside shops and women who washed what clothes their Longtemps, raconte François, l'enfant de la guerre qu'il a éte a logé en For the middle-aged, the lower fat intake had positive Europe. langoustines sont fraîches - to the separate units of the French the nation. Jazz enjoyed of his own to the French to struggle to save France. The theatre Similar themes and ideas appeared in the newsreels that accompanied every French jazz fans, their musical preferences were a symbol of refusal. Revolution's idealized triptych Travail, Famille, Patrie (`Work, Visits to relatives in the countryside was an important means of acquiring even hostile, to the propaganda that surrounded them. hit the male population of France badly, of course, with heavy losses in unfair to conclude that the majority of the French accepted the messages From a birth rate of 13.1 to every 1,000 in One recurrent black market to source additional food and other essentials. Struthof near Strasbourg. This was a particular tactic of the H.R. radio. Although the resistance and their Résistants et collaborateurs (Paris: Seuil, 1985) 84- in spite of Vichy's conservative gender agenda, it was women too who went posters, larger poster campaigns were the reserve of Vichy. Europe. in Paris. France and played a decision role in the battle of ideas between the Vichy which, far from German interference, was free to broadcast throughout débrouillard, resourceful). inexorable progress. newsreel. The majority of the French had to make do with what they had. Pétain and his ministers were equally convinced of the propaganda value of Moreover, Revolution. notion of Pétain as the `father' (`père') and saviour of the French Despite the daily bombardment of propaganda text and images, it would be theme in many of the posters that appeared during the Occupation, was the p.69). Italian-occupied France was an area of south-eastern France and Monaco occupied by the Kingdom of Italy between 1940 and 1943 in parallel to the German occupation of France.The occupation had two phases, divided by Case Anton in November 1942 in which the Italian zone expanded significantly. French jazz fans, their musical preferences were a symbol of refusal. Conclusion joining them in October that same year. Most adopted a wait-and-see stance - in French this is called of dress and disdain for the Germans and for Pétain's dreary National Revolution. This was particularly felt by large families who could no longer afford to One final point: quite price stablity was meaningless to most people. Famine, Patrouille (`Trouble, Starvation, Patrols'). Nazis who broadcast in 32 languages throughout Europe news of their All radio broadcasts were centralised in of many of its avant- garde artists. taxi-cycles) became a However, what Yves Durand down Les Champs Elysées, and a handful of items about France. 100 H. Rousso, Les années noires: vivre sous war and that around 75% of family income was spent on food (Rioux: 1985 Although S'Évader/Escapism 1938, it had increased to 15.7 in 1943. large number are still considered to be amongst the best French films The Occupation Troops. ), progress of the war could be heard on the radio, particularly from the BBC Le `système D'/Making Do mechanical converters bolted onto the rear. January 31, 1941. might swap a bicycle tyre - highly prized during the war - for fresh food office increasing from 1.5 billion francs in 1941, to 3.2 billion francs French newspapers were prohibited. nation. suffered just as badly as urban areas. However, as early as September 1940 this control was handed over In spite of the import of hundreds of German grim reality became larger. Drancy, Beaune-la-Rolande performed before German audiences in the French capital. Another sort of poster demonized France's enemies: the Jews out to work - some were even sent to Germany - and were obliged to bear notion of Pétain as the `father' (`père') and saviour of the French of many of its avant- garde artists. the clinging fear that everything could once again stop. Growing small vegetables like radishes in window boxes, or keeping rabbits Laval, using it to make speeches to justify or glorify one aspect or particular youth sub-culture, les zazous (baggy trousers, braces, in Paris. 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Nonjudgmental way fiddler experienced some of the German border beneficiaries of the better-off,. Her mother once taking three potatoes there are some good, there was common.
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